Construction and Evaluation of an Antibody Phage Display Library Targeting Heparan Sulfate

Construction and Evaluation of an Antibody Phage Display Library Targeting Heparan Sulfate
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide with excessive structural range. Totally different HS epitopes have been detected and localized utilizing single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies from a ‘single pot’ phage show library containing a randomized complementarity figuring out area of the heavy chain (CDR3).
On this examine, we created a brand new library containing anti-HS scFvs that every one harbor a dp-38 heavy chain section the place the CDR3 area was engineered to include the XBBXBX heparin binding consensus website (X = any amino acid, B = R, Okay or H).
The library contained ~1.73 × 106 distinctive antibodies and was biopanned in opposition to HS from a number of sources. The chosen antibodies have been sequenced and chemically/immunohistologically characterised. Numerous 67 anti-HS scFv antibodies have been chosen, of which 31 contained a XBBXBX CDR3 sequence.
There was a transparent choice for glycine on the first and proline on the fourth place of the CDR3. The sequence GZZP(R/Okay)X (Z = R, Okay or H, however can also include N, S, or Q) was unusually overrepresented. Chosen antibodies reacted with HS/heparin, however not with different glycosaminoglycans.
Antibodies reacted differentially with respect to N-, 2-O, or 6-O-desulfated heparin preparations, and confirmed distinct topologies of HS epitopes in rat kidney sections. The library could also be instrumental within the choice of a big pool of HS epitope-specific antibodies, and – since all antibodies differ solely of their 6 amino acid CDR area – could also be a instrument for a rational design of antibodies recognizing particular HS sulfation patterns.

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) perform as endocytic receptors for an internalizing anti-nucleic acid antibody.

A subset of monoclonal anti-DNA autoantibodies enters quite a lot of residing cells. Right here, we aimed to determine the endocytic receptors acknowledged by an internalizing anti-nucleic acid autoantibody, the 3D8 single-chain variable fragment (scFv).
We discovered that cell floor binding and internalization of 3D8 scFv have been inhibited markedly in soluble heparan sulfate (HS)/chondroitin sulfate (CS)-deficient or -removed cells and within the presence of soluble HS and CS. 3D8 scFv colocalized intracellularly with both HS proteoglycans (HSPGs) or CSPGs in HeLa cells.
3D8 scFv was co-endocytosed and co-precipitated with consultant particular person HSPG and CSPG molecules: syndecan-2 (a transmembrane HSPG), glypican-3 (a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored HSPG); CD44 (a transmembrane CSPG); and brevican (a GPI-anchored CSPG).
Collected knowledge point out that 3D8 scFv binds to the negatively charged sugar chains of each HSPGs and CSPGs and is then internalized together with these molecules, no matter how these proteoglycans are related to the cell membrane.
That is the primary examine to indicate that anti-DNA antibodies enter cells through each HSPGs and CSPGs concurrently. The information might support understanding of endocytic receptors that bind anti-DNA autoantibodies. The examine additionally gives perception into potential cell membrane targets for macromolecular supply.

Anti-heparan sulfate antibody and useful lack of glomerular heparan sulfate proteoglycans in lupus nephritis.

Background The aim of this examine was to guage the options of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) as agrins of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and circulating anti-heparan sulfate (HS) antibodies in lupus nephritis, evaluating titers among the many following teams: lupus nephritis (LN), non-renal lupus, non-lupus nephritis, and wholesome controls.
Strategies The stage of nephritis was decided based mostly on the kidney biopsy. Alcian blue staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for agrin have been carried out for histological analysis of GBM HSPGs in regular glomeruli, non-lupus membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), and lupus MGN.
The outcomes have been used for measurement of the serum anti-HS antibody titers utilizing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) within the following teams: 38 wholesome controls, 38 non-lupus nephritis, 37 non-renal lupus, and 38 LN. Outcomes Glomerulus HSPGs have been stained bluish-green alongside the GBM with Alcian blue.
Nevertheless, IHC staining in opposition to agrin was virtually utterly destructive within the lupus MGN group in contrast with the traditional and non-lupus MGN teams, which confirmed brown staining of GBM. The next stage of anti-HS IgG was detected in LN in contrast with different teams, respectively. Greater titers have been related to the presence of SLE and nephritis.
The next diploma of proteinuria normalized to glomerular filtration fee (eGFR) was noticed in affiliation with increased anti-HS antibody titers in LN. Conclusion This examine demonstrated a useful lack of GBM HSPGs and better ranges of circulating anti-HS antibodies as a attribute characteristic of lupus nephritis, suggesting their involvement within the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis and proteinuria.

Isolation of Antibodies to Heparan Sulfate on Glypicans by Phage Show.

Heparan sulfate (HS) performs an essential position in improvement and illness. It interacts with many progress components, chemokines, and different ligands recognized to be essential for cell progress, motility, and differentiation.
Nevertheless, isolating an antibody to HS in mice, rabbits, or people is troublesome because of the poor immunogenicity of HS. Phage show is a serious antibody engineering know-how that permits the choice of antibodies for poorly immunogenic or extremely conserved antigens.
This protocol incorporates detailed procedures for HS antigen preparation and isolation of a phage displayed human single-chain Fv (HS20) that binds HS on glypican-3 (GPC3), and evaluation of the chosen phage antibody. It’s conceivable that the procedures described on this protocol could also be relevant to the isolation of antibodies for quite a lot of HS molecules.
Construction and Evaluation of an Antibody Phage Display Library Targeting Heparan Sulfate

The technology and characterisation of neutralising antibodies in opposition to the Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) GDVII capsid reveals the potential binding website of the host cell co-receptor, heparan sulfate.

The early phases of picornavirus capsid meeting and the host components concerned are poorly understood. Because the localisation of viral proteins in contaminated cells can present info on their perform, antibodies in opposition to purified Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) GDVII capsids have been generated by immunisation of rabbits.
The resultant anti-TMEV capsid antibodies recognised a C-terminal area of VP1 however not VP2 or VP3 by Western evaluation. Examination of the websites of TMEV capsid meeting by oblique immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy confirmed that at 5h submit an infection, capsid sign was diffusely cytoplasmic with robust perinuclear staining and moved into giant punctate constructions from 6 to 8h submit an infection.
A plaque discount neutralisation assay confirmed that the anti-TMEV capsid antibodies however not anti-VP1 antibodies might neutralise viral an infection in vitro. The VP1 C-terminal residues recognised by the anti-TMEV capsid antibodies have been mapped to a loop on the capsid floor close to to the putative receptor binding pocket.
In silico docking experiments confirmed that the recognized TMEV co-receptor, heparan sulfate, interacts with residues of VP1 within the putative receptor binding pocket, residues of VP3 within the adjoining pit and residues of the adjoining VP1 C-terminal loop which is recognised by the anti-TMEV capsid antibodies.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) Antibody

20-abx172768
  • EUR 787.00
  • EUR 411.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • Please enquire.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) Antibody

20-abx176806
  • EUR 439.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1233.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) Antibody

20-abx176807
  • EUR 1233.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • Please enquire.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) Antibody

20-abx212992
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) Antibody

20-abx213095
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) Antibody

20-abx103270
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1205.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) Antibody

20-abx112974
  • EUR 732.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) Antibody

20-abx172769
  • EUR 342.00
  • EUR 857.00
  • EUR 439.00
  • EUR 154.00
  • EUR 258.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) Antibody (Biotin)

20-abx272006
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 230.00
  • EUR 1191.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) Antibody (FITC)

20-abx273784
  • EUR 453.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • EUR 1288.00
  • EUR 620.00
  • EUR 342.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Chicken heparan sulfate ELISA Kit

ELA-E0623d 96 Tests
EUR 928

Heparan Sulfate (HS) ELISA Kit

abx364991-96tests 96 tests
EUR 707
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Heparan Sulfate (HS) ELISA Kit

20-abx585370
  • EUR 7973.00
  • EUR 4246.00
  • EUR 981.00
  • 10 × 96 tests
  • 5 × 96 tests
  • 96 tests
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Heparan Sulfate (HS) ELISA Kit

abx513537-96tests 96 tests
EUR 668
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Recombinant Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG)

4-RPA565Hu01
  • EUR 422.56
  • EUR 216.00
  • EUR 1309.60
  • EUR 503.20
  • EUR 906.40
  • EUR 346.00
  • EUR 3124.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P34741
  • Buffer composition: 20mM Tris, 150mM NaCl, pH8.0, containing 1mM EDTA, 1mM DTT, 0.01% SKL, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 15.2kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 4.7
Description: Recombinant Human Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan expressed in: E.coli

anti-Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2

YF-PA23929 50 ul
EUR 334
Description: Mouse polyclonal to Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2

Heparan sulfate ELISA Kit (OKEH02552)

OKEH02552 96 Wells
EUR 857
Description: Description of target: Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. It occurs as a proteoglycan (HSPG) in which two or three HS chains are attached in close proximity to cell surface or extracellular matrix proteins. It is in this form that HS binds to a variety of protein ligands and regulates a wide variety of biological activities, including developmental processes, angiogenesis, blood coagulation and tumour metastasis. HS has been shown to serve as cellular receptor for a number of viruses including the respiratory syncytial virus.;Species reactivity: All;Application: ;Assay info: Assay Methodology: Quantitative Sandwich ELISA;Sensitivity: 2.345 ng/mL

Mouse Anti Heparin/Heparan Sulfate Monoclonal Antibody

DMABT-54795MH 0.1 mg
EUR 1053

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) Antibody (Biotin)

20-abx272294
  • EUR 453.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • EUR 1316.00
  • EUR 620.00
  • EUR 342.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-15 working days.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) Polyclonal Antibody (Human)

4-PAA565Hu01
  • EUR 232.00
  • EUR 2285.00
  • EUR 574.00
  • EUR 289.00
  • EUR 208.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
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  • Sequence of the immunogen: HSPG (Glu19~Glu144)
  • Buffer composition: 0.01M PBS, pH7.4, containing 0.05% Proclin-300, 50% glycerol.
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Human Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG)

Anti-Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2/HSPG2 Antibody

PB9277 100ug/vial
EUR 334

Anti-N-sulfated heparan sulfate Purified

11-821-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 158

Anti-N-sulfated heparan sulfate Biotin

1B-821-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 204

Anti-N-sulfated heparan sulfate PE

1P-821-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 258

General HS/ Heparan sulfate ELISA Kit

E0039Ge 1 Kit
EUR 717

Rat heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E02H1352-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rat heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E02H1352-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rat heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E02H1352-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E03H1352-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E03H1352-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E03H1352-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rabbit heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E04H1352-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rabbit heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E04H1352-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rabbit heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E04H1352-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E06H1352-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E06H1352-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E06H1352-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E01H1352-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human heparan sulfate,HS ELISA kit

E01H1352-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
  • Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUT
  • Show more
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human heparan sulfate,HS in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.
These findings recommend that the anti-TMEV capsid antibodies neutralise virus an infection by stopping heparan sulfate from binding to the capsid. The antibodies produced on this examine are an essential instrument for additional investigating virus-host cell interactions important to picornavirus meeting.

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